BGR Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe

Marine seismic survey area: Off SE-Asia / Australia - Reflection seismic data

Refraction seismic data

Working area: Off SE-Asia / Australia
(1) South-China Sea / Sulu Sea(2) Celebes Sea(3) Sunda Arc(4) NE-Australia(5) SE-Australia 
Lord-Howe Rise
BGR01 (AK. Nemchinov) 2001
SO197 (Sonne) 2008
VA16 (Valdivia) 1977SO98 (Sonne) 1994SO137/138 (Sonne) 1998SO7 (Sonne) 1978SO36 (Sonne) 1985
SO23 (Sonne) 1982SO186-2 (Sonne) 2006SO16 (Sonne) 1981BGR00 (Polar Duke) 2000
SO27 (Sonne) 1983SO189-1 (Sonne) 2006
BGR84 (Explora) 1984SO190 (Sonne) 2006
BGR86 (Explora) 1986
SO49 (Sonne) 1987

Working area: OFF SE-Asia / AustraliaWorking area: OFF SE-Asia / Australia Source: BGR

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Cruise VA16 1977

Vessel Valdivia

South China Sea / SE Asia

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines1.742 km 
Sampling rate4 ms
Record length11.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 24 channels


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Cruise SO23 1982

Vessel Sonne

South China Sea / Sulu Sea

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines6.870 km 
Sampling rate4 ms
Record length10.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 24 channels

Summary

In the framework of the IDOE-SEATAR (International Decade of Ocean Exploration - Studies of East Asia Tectonics and Resources) Program, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, carried out a geophysical survey in the Sulu Sea during the period from March 11, 1982 to April 15, 1982 using the German research vessel R/V SONNE.

The SONNE cruise no. SO-23 continued SEATAR-related studies of BGR which have been carried out during the Southeast Asian Cruise of the VALDIVIA (VA-16) in 1977. During SONNE cruise no. SO-23, multi-channel reflection measurements were carried out in parallel with magnetic, gravimetric, and sea-beam measurements on 21 lines with a total length of 3,300 km in the Sulu Sea. In the NW Sulu Basin, situated between the shelf of East Palawan in the north and the volcanic Cagayan Ridge in the south, a 50 - 100 km wide graben-like basin exists which is filled with thick Neogene and pre-Middle Miocene sediments. The basin trends east-northeast. At longitude 119°E it bends to a north-south direction. The dominating structural element within the sedimentary graben-like basin is a diapiric-chaotic zone about 25 km wide, which was only detectable west of longitude 120°E. The base of the elongated diapiric-chaotic zone, which might represent a tectonically mobilized equivalent of the Crocker Formation (Middle Miocene - Lower Oligocene) is difficult to define in the seismic monitor records. The configuration and the internal structural style of individual structures of the diapiric-chaotic zone, which can be followed over length of about 150 km, seem to resemble those of the oil-bearing province offshore western Sabah. In the eastern part of the NW-Sulu Basin east of longitude 119°E, several north-trending anticlines of presumably Middle Miocene age and locally volcanic intrusions of presumably Plio-Pleistocene age have been observed.

During the second leg of the cruise SO-23 in the southeastern part of the South China Sea (April 16, 1982, to May 9, 1982) multi-channel seismic reflection measurements were carried out in parallel with magnetic, gravimetric, and sea-beam measurements on 19 lines with a total length of 3,570 km in the southeastern part of the South China Sea, including the area of the Dangerous Grounds. In addition, 2,280 km of profile was surveyed with only magnetics, gravity, and sea-beam measurements.

A complex structural style was observed in the investigated part of the Dangerous Grounds, South China Sea, which is believed to be part of a microcontinental block which rifted from the continental margin of Asia in the Early Paleogene/Late Mesozoic time. There are prospective depocenters and structures trending NE-SW, E-W, and N-S in the southwestern part, i.e. the area west of longitude 117.5°E (units 2, 3, 4). Unit 4 contains a series of half-grabens with thick sedimentary infill. An imbricated mélange of pre-Middle Miocene age seems to exist only off southern Palawan. The dominating structural trend in the area northeast of Reed Bank is NW-SE. Oceanic crust characterized by NW-trending magnetic lineations (anomalies 8 to 12 ?) was observed north of latitude 12°N and between longitude 118°E and the Manila Trench.

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Cruise SO27 1983

Vessel Sonne

South China Sea

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines7.204 km 
Sampling rate4 ms
Record length10.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 24channels

Summary

As recommended by the Joint CCOP-IOC Working Group on Post-IDOE Studies on East Asia Tectonics and Resources and the proposal of the Bureau of Mines and Geosciences of the Philippines to extend the research of the previous R/V SONNE survey SO-23, the Federal Institute of Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) carried out a geophysical survey in the southeastern part of the South China Sea (Dangerous Grounds) and in the northwestern part of the Sulu Sea in two legs (April 29 to June 29, 1983) on SONNE cruise SO-27.

Multichannel reflection seismic measurements were carried out in parallel with magnetic, gravimetric, Sea-Beam, and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler measurements on 34 lines with a total length of 7204 km. In addition, 26 lines with a total length of 2800 km were surveyed with only the last four named methods. SONNE cruise SO-27 was financed by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT).

Six seismic sequences (DG-1 to DG-6) (DG = Dangerous Grounds) could be distinguished in the surveyed part of the South China Sea. The oldest recognizable sequence is the sequence DG-6, an equivalent of the Pre-Nido Formation of the northwest shelf of Palawan. Seismic unconformity Violet marks the top of the DG-6 sequence, which consists of a complex system of tilted horsts and half-grabens.

The half-grabens are presumably filled with clastic sediments of Eocene age (seismic sequence DG-5). The top of seismic sequence DG-5 is bounded by unconformity Blue, which is interpreted as representing the end of the rift phase and the onset of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea about 32 m.y. ago.

The overlying seismic sequence DG-4 is characterized by an internal reflection pattern with low frequencies. Lithologically, this sequence consists of shallow-water carbonates with reef complexes of Oligocene to Early Miocene age and has to be regarded as equivalent to the oil-containing Nido Formation of the Palawan shelf. A rapid subsidence of large parts of the survey area during the late (?) Early Miocene ended the growth of the shallow water carbonate platform, indicated by the unconformity Blue.

The overlying seismic sequence DG-3 is interpreted as consisting of a transitional facies between a shallow water and a bathyal depositional environment. The top of this sequence is marked by unconformity Red, which most probably represents the end of the drifting phase (seafloor spreading) in the South China Sea during the Middle Miocene.

The most prominent structural feature of the shelf and slope of central and southern Palawan is a thick sedimentary wedge originally interpreted as a melange. Our data show that the Oligocene to Early Miocene carbonate platform of the Dangerous Grounds extends beneath the Palawan Trough, as well as beneath the central and southern Palawan shelf, underlying the melange.

Based on the finding that i) Rhaeto-Liassic rocks are present in the Dangerous Grounds, ii) the Oligocene to Early Miocene carbonate platform continues from the Dangerous Grounds through the Palawan Trough to the central and southern Palawan shelf, and iii) there is thinned continental crust 20 km thick below the continental slope of southern Palawan, we believe the Dangerous Grounds, together with Palawan and the Caiman Islands belong to a uniform continental fragment which separated from the proto-chinese continental margin when the South China Sea opened during the Oligocene. Previously, the melange of central and southern Palawan, which contains ophiolites, was interpreted as being autochthonous. In our opinion, the melange is an allochthonous mass which has been overthrusted onto the eastern margin of the Dangerous Grounds-Palawan-Caiman microcontinent from the Northwest Sulu Basin. The Ulugan Bay fault is interpreted as the northeastern front of this allochthonous mass.

The area of prospective carbonate plays is considerably enlarged by the discovery that the Oligocene to Early Miocene carbonate platform with Nido-type reef structures extends below the allochthonous sediments of central and southern Palawan. We expect that hydrocarbon-bearing structures of the Sabah-type, i. e. thick, folded Neogene sediments, will be found in the western part of the northwestern Sulu basin. If our interpretation is correct, a new chapter of hydrocarbon exploration may be about to begin around Palawan in the Philippines.

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Cruise BGR84

1984 Vessel Explora

South China Sea

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines4.467 km 
Sampling rate4 ms
Record length12.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 60 channels

Summary

In the southwestern part of the Sulu Sea and in the southeastern part of the South China Sea, between NW Palawan and the northwestern part of the Reed Bank the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover carried out a geophysical survey from 11th October, 1984 to 23rd November, 1984. This work was done in close cooperation with the Bureau of Mines and Geosciences (BMG), Manila, using the German seismic vessel EXPLORA chartered from PRAKLA-SEISMOS GmbH, Hannover.

Multichannel reflection seismic measurements were carried out on 40 lines with a total length of 4.467 km simultaneously with magnetic measurements on 19 lines with a total length of 3.047 km. The Oligocene to lower Miocene Nido-carbonates of the South China Sea that have been proven during the SONNE-cruises SO-23 und SO-27 beneath the allochthonous and chaotically deformed complex which was overthrusted from the Sulu Sea terrane, could be correlated up to the Balabac Straits. The three major unconformities of the Sulu Sea, unconformity A (Early Pliocene), unconformity B (mid Middle Miocene) and unconformity C (lower Middle Miocene) have been correlated over extensive areas by tying into the Sulu Sea well Coral-1. In the Sulu Sea reflection horizon C forms the top of a chaotic bedded rock complex and presumably represents an equivalent to the unconformity "Red" of the South China Sea, in the west of Palawan. There, the unconformity "Red" forms the surface of a highly deformed rock complex which has been interpreted as an allochthonous mass accumulation.

It is assumed that pronounced magnetic anomalies, approximately 140 - 160 km off NW Palawan as well as a change in the reflection seismic pattern of the acoustic basement, associated with diapiric structures which are interpreted as intrusions represent the ocean-continent boundary in this part of the South China Sea. In the Reed Bank area the basement type which is interpreted as continental crust (transitional crust?) extends as far as 160 km to the northwest, towards the South China Sea basin. The northern part of the Reed Bank is characterized by intense downfaulting and rotated fault blocks with reef complexes on top. In contrast to results from the Dangerous Grounds of the previous SONNE cruises, the deeper lying coherent reflections could be recognized in the monitor records off the northwestern Reed Bank area. It might be that these parts of the Reed Bank block consist of metamorphized and/or highly consolidated rocks of pre-Tertiary age which originally formed part of the Chinese hinterland, and which was effected by previous orogenies prior to the rifting of the proto-China continental margin.

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Cruise BGR86 1986

Vessel Explora

N-Borneo / Sulu Sea

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines4.798 km 
Sampling rate4 ms
Record length10.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 60 channels

Summary

In the scope of International Geoscientific Programs and in close cooperation with PETRONAS, Malaysia, the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) carried out a geophysical survey on the continental margin off Sabah during the period from July 20 to August 10, 1986, using the PRAKLA-SEISMOS vessel EXPLORA chartered by the BGR. The research cruise is a continuation of BGR’s marine geoscientific studies in the South China Sea and in the Sulu Sea with the German research vessels VALDIVIA (1977), SONNE (1982/83) and EXPLORA (1984).The previous investigations provided new information regarding the geological and tectonic history of the southern part of the South China Sea in the context of plate tectonics. According to BGR’s interpretation of the large amount of collected geophysical, geological and geochemical data the widely accepted hypotheses of the presence of an ancient subduction zone beneath the Sabah-Palawan Trough should be revised.

The main objective of the EXPLORA cruise was to search for an Oligocene-Early Miocene carbonate platform off Sabah and in the western Sulu Sea.

On the continental margin off Sabah 27 lines were surveyed with gravity and multichannel reflection seismics and partly with magnetics, with a total length of 3 126 km. A strong reflector interpreted as reflector BLUE of previous BGR cruises off Palawan was recognizable beneath the Sabah Trough in depth between 4 and 7 sec (TWT). The isochrones of the reflector strike approximately 50°N. The surface of the reflector dips with 2 to 3 degree towards southeast. Toward the north-western part of the Sabah Trough the reflector is disrupted by a basement high.

According to the preliminary interpretation of the gravity data, the prominent free-air anomaly associated with the Sabah Trough and adjacent areas has the same shape as the anomaly observed across the Palawan Trough. Therefore it is concluded that the Sabah Trough is underlain by a thinned continental crust.


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Cruise SO49 1987

Vessel Sonne

South China Sea

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines6.812 km 
Sampling rate4 ms
Record length10.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 48 channels

Summary

The 1st Leg of SONNE cruise SO-49 was designed to investigate the Cotabato subduction zone off Mindanao and the geological structure of the eastern part of the Sulu Sea including the convergent continental margins off Zamboanga Peninsula, Negros, and Panay by a geophysical survey. On the 1st Leg multichannel seismic reflection measurements were carried out in parallel with magnetic, gravimetric, sea beam and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler measurements on 16 lines with a total length of 2,700 km. The SONNE cruise SO-49 was financed by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT). The geophysical survey in the Celebes Sea and in the Sulu Sea was carried out as a co-operative project by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), the Bureau of Mines and Geoscience (BMG) and the Bureau of Energy Development (BED). 16 German scientists and technicians and 4 Philippine scientists attended Leg 1 of SONNE cruise SO-49. 

The seismic lines surveyed across the Cotabato Trench/Celebes Sea and the Sulu Trench/Sulu Sea illustrate the active deformation of the layered sediments of the Celebes Sea and the SE Sulu Basin along the trenches: The seismic data suggest an active development of imbricate thrust sheets at the toe of the accretionary wedges and a simultaneous duplex-kind shortening within the wedges above the downgoing oceanic crust of the Celebes Sea and the SE Sulu Basin. The surface of the downgoing oceanic crust forms a major detachment plane or sole thrust. By these processes mass is added to the accretionary wedges resulting in thickening and growing of the wedges. The sedimentary apron overlaying the wedge is only mildly affected by these processes because the surface of the accretionary wedges forms a roof thrust. The collected geophysical data suggest that the oceanic SE Sulu Basin previously extended northward into Panay Island. It was closed by eastward subduction of oceanic crust beneath the upthrusted/updomed Cagayan Ridge. The Negros Trench, a 4.000 to 5,000 m deep bathymetric depression, is thought to represent the collision suture of the opposed subduction systems. The Cagayan Ridge which divides the Sulu Sea into the NW Sulu Basin and the SE Sulu Basin continues into the Antique Ridge of Panay. Approximately 45 suitable and problem-oriented sampling locations have been defined and documented for the subsequent geological and geochemical program by on-board analysis and interpretation of the seismic near trace records and the recordings of the 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler and the sea beam system.

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Cruise BGR01 2001

AK. Nemchinov

NW Sabah / Malaysia

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines5,982 km 
Sampling rate2 or 1
Record length14.336 ms
Streamerdigital - 360/468 channels

SUMMARY

The main objectives of the BGR cruise BGR01 - POPSCOMS off Sabah/Malaysia which is in co-operation with PETRONAS Malaysia are the research on

Marine Methane Gas Hydrates

Detection, distribution and formation; relation to the adjacent highly productive "conventional" gas province in the specific tectonic setting of the collisonal belt off Sabah.

Tectonic development of the (accretionary) margin off Sabah

Improve the tectonics stratigraphic hypothesis of the subducted Proto-South-China-Sea and continental crust under the accretionary wedge, respectively in the subducted plate.

Open questions and targets of the survey:

  • Within the help of the already existing magnetic data and other seismic measurement methods (e.g. special refraction seismic with ocean-bottom hydrophones [OBH], which presumably is an exellent and adequate method) we try to discern between oceanic and continental crust in the subducted plate, to investigate the nature of the transition and get information on the subduction angle. This is important in relation to the Cagayan Ridge (Sulu Sea) that is interpreted as an island arc that is related to the subduction of the proto-South China Sea.
  • Another aim was to enable the determination of seismic anisotropy, distribution of BSR's and hydrates in the area and their v(p) to v(s) ratios.
  • Are the gas hydrates related to the adjacent highly productive "conventional" gas province? What is the structural character of the transition zone between the hydrate province and the adjacent conventional gas bearing province further up-slope? Conversely, are there indication fpr a possible deepwater source? Can initial conclusions be drawn regarding their biogenic or thermogenic origin?
  • Is there an impact of sedimentation conditions, compressional behaviour (e.g. at active margins) and/or structural properties on the genesis and stability of gas hydrates and BSRs (Bottom Simultaing Reflectors) ? How do the findings under different conditions compare in that regard? Which are the favorable conditions for the genesis of gas hydrates, and can they be detected by geophysical methods even if there are no BSR's ?

The indings are expected to provide a contribution to the assessment of the deepwater hydrocarbon potential along the continental margin off Sabah.

Results:

In the study area the BSRs were identified on the base of their polarity reversal with respect to the seafloor and when they transact reflectors from the strata. The widely distributed BSRs along the seismic lines of the survey deliver an indirect indicator for the presence of gas hydrates in the study area (BSR's in post Miocene sediments). The BSR depths below seafloor vary between 250 and 350 m. Differences in the reflection coefficient of the BSRs are mainly related to the amount of free gas beneath the Gas Hydrit Stability Zone

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Cruise SO98 1994

Vessel SONNE

Celebes Sea

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines3.300 km 
Sampling rate4
Record length15.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 48 channels

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Cruise SO137/138 1998

Vessel Sonne

Sunda Arc

GINCO LogoSource: BGR

SUMMARY

GINCO (Geoscientific Investigations along the Active Convergence Zone between the Eastern Eurasian and Indo-Australian Plates off Indonesia) is a joint German-Indonesian geoscientific research project with the scientific objective to study the structure and evolution of the offshore part of the active subduction zone off southern Sumatra and western Java as well as in the Sunda Strait.

During the first of three consecutive SONNE cruises within the GINCO series in total more than 4,100 km of multichannel seismic (MCS) data have been surveyed.

  • The seismic data show a rather homogeneous oceanic crust with minor reflectivity and moderate sedimentary cover (ca. 300 - 400 m). The morphology of the top of the oceanic basement is relatively smooth and exhibits minor faults with small offsets concentrating at the subduction bulge. In the unmigrated MCS profiles indications for one or another fault are detected reaching deeper crustal levels. An oceanic reflection Moho could not be detected except very faint and sparse events that are still highly debatable. The undisturbed sedimentary infill of the trench increases toward the frontal thrust where it amounts only about 1,000 m. It follows a steeply upfolded accretionary wedge with thicknesses of more than 9 km.
  • The plate boundary can be detected up to some 100 km landward of the trench. A pregnant Outer Arc High the morphological extrema of which forming the outer island chain off Sumatra, clearly shows trenchward directed imbricated thrust tectonics.
  • Presumably also back-thrusting occurs toward the forearc basin. The transition to the up to 8,000 m thick forearc basin is characterized by a clearly expressed strike-slip fault (Mentawai Fault) leading to a strong transpressional dome-like up-squeezing of the predominantly flat and undisturbed sedimentary layering. The seismic data off Java suggest that a similar strike-slip fault at the same tectonic position is present indicating the wide eastward extent of the related shear process. On the easternmost profile at about 106.5°E, however, this feature was lacking.
  • Off Sumatra, beneath the landward flank of the forearc basin divergent ‘seaward dipping reflectors’ were detected within the uppermost basement commonly indicating voluminous lava flows during the initial phase of continental break-up. If their occurrence can be validated - and the interpretation of magnetic data seems to favour that hypothesis - important conclusions for the position of the ancient Continent Ocean Boundary before the initiation of the subduction process about 30 Ma ago could be drawn.
  • The possible presence of oceanic crustal splinters emplaced within the imbricated zone of the outer arc high during the subduction process is supported by geological observations on the adjacent islands and by the density distribution derived from gravity data. However, the magnetic data do not show corresponding anomalies.
  • Bottom simulating reflectors have been widely encountered in the forearc basin, not however, in the accretionary wedge. The area covered by BSRs amounts to roughly 22,000 km² after conservative interpolation.
  • The pull-apart depression in the Sunda Strait is subdivided into two basins by a NW - SE trending high that probably is of volcanic origin. This high is also characterized by distinct small-scale magnetic anomalies. The sub-basins are bordered by steeply dipping fault systems with partly large offsets. They probably represent extensions of the large ramifying Sumatra Main Fault System.
  • Off West Java the Pelabuhan-Ratu Fault could be traced as marine extension of the Cimandiri Fault on land.
Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines4.256 km 365 km 
Sampling rate4 1
Record length14.000 ms 14.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 120 channelsdigital - 120 channels

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Cruise SO7 1978

Vessel SONNE

Australia / SE Asia

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines7.403 km 
Sampling rate4
Record length10.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 24 channels


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Cruise SO16 1981

Vessel SONNE

Australia

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines3.930 km 
Sampling rate4
Record length12.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 24/12 channels


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Cruise SO36 1985

Vessel SONNE

SE-Australia / Lord-Howe Rise

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines3.660 km 
Sampling rate4
Record length12.000 ms
Streamerdigital - 24 channels

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Cruise BGR00 2000

Vessel Polar Duke

SE-Australia / Tasmania

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Cruise SO186-2 2006

Vessel RS SONNE

Northern Sumatra

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines 5358 km 
Sampling rate 4 ms
Record length 14000 ms
Streamer digital - 240 channels

Summary

SeaCause cruise SO186-2, aboard the RV Sonne, was carried out off northern Sumatra between 21st January and 24th February 2006, with mobilisation and demobilisation in Singapore and Penang, Malaysia, respectively. The geophysical survey acquired multichannel seismic data (MCS) using a 240 channel, 3 km Sercel streamer, and a tuned airgun array comprising 16 airguns with a total capacity of 50.8 litres. Bathymetry data, using the 12 kHz Simrad swath system, subseabed data using the hull mounted high resolution Parasound profiler together with gravity and magnetic data were also acquired.

The main scientific objective of the survey was to investigate the southern part of the rupture zone of the 26th December 2004 9.3 magnitude earthquake, that caused the catastrophic tsunami of that date, and the rupture zone of the 8.7 magnitude earthquake of March 28th 2005. Specifically, to identify the segment boundary between the two earthquakes, as recognised by the distribution of their aftershocks. This was to be achieved by mapping the structure of the subduction zone including the dip angle of the subducted plate, the architecture of the accretionary prism and the structure of the forearc basins, particularly their strike-slip fault systems. Also to be investigated was whether there was a contribution to the 2004 tsunami from major submarine failures.

During the survey a total of 5358 line kilometres of MCS data were acquired, mainly on lines oriented orthogonal to the subduction zone and extending from the ocean basin across the trench and accretionary prism to the forearc basins offshore Sumatra. The orthogonal survey lines were located on average approximately 40 km apart. The survey was planned using the bathymetry from the HMS Scott, RV Natsushima and RV Sonne cruises carried out in 2005.

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Cruise SO189-1 2006 Sumatra

Vessel RS SONNE

Northern Sumatra

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines 4372 km 
Sampling rate 2 or 1 ms
Record length 14000 ms
Streamer digital - 240 channels

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Cruise SO190 2006 SINDBAD

Vessel RS SONNE

Java

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines 4933 km 
Sampling rate 2 ms
Record length 14000 ms
Streamer digital - 240 channels

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Cruise SO197 2008 RISE

Vessel RS SONNE

Palawan / Philippinen

Multichannel seismic data acquisition parameters :
Total length of lines 3724 km 
Sampling rate 2 ms
Record length 14000 ms
Streamer digital - 276/312 channels

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Contact

    
Dr. Volkmar Damm
Phone: +49-(0)511-643-3226
Fax: +49-(0)511-643-3661

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