BGR Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe

Commodity reports

Titelblatt Responsible Gold Sourcing from Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining

Responsible Gold Sourcing from Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining

Gold refiners have different options when seeking to source gold from artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in a responsible way. This report examines the responsible gold sourcing framework defined through applicable regulatory instruments as well as relevant industry and sustainability standards in gold supply chains. It then proceeds to analyzing questions of operational gold supply chain management. Further, the report explores incentives for possible supply chain participants, in particular ASM operators, to engage in legal supply chains. Finally, the study evaluates the parameters for establishing legal ASM supply chains in selected gold-producing developing countries.

Sustainability Schemes for Mineral Resources: A Comparative Overview

Sustainability Schemes for Mineral Resources – A Comparative Overview

For the last two decades, several new sustainability schemes for the mining level and mineral supply chains have been developed that focus on various commodities, mining scales, supply chain tiers, countries and issues. That’s why the current debate is mostly about how sustainability schemes can better be harmonized and work together in order to improve stakeholders’ orientation and understanding of schemes, reduce costs for certification and deliver measurable progress in sustainability. This report presents a comparative overview of nineteen sustainability schemes, their features and moreover closer delineates focused management activities, differences in standard design, traceability, assurance and transparency of standard compliance. In order to provide comparability among sustainability requirements for the mining level in particular, the standard documents of the nineteen schemes were screened for relevant aspects and a consolidated framework of issues was developed. Furthermore, the extent of requirements of each scheme was estimated and visualized for each issue. Finally, the report gives recommendations for harmonization e.g. through a common modular standard. Harmonization could foster comparability and credibility which can result in greater uptake. Indeed, concerted efforts of numerous actors are needed to realize responsible mining worldwide. However, increased harmonization of standards will always depend on the willingness of the involved stakeholders to reach a consensus on objectives and approaches.

Titelblatt Concepts and Strategies for the Designation and Management of ASM zones

Concepts and Strategies for the Designation and Management of ASM zones

In numerous developing countries, artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) generates considerable economic and social benefit from the mine through to the export of the products. At the same time, however, ASM is often accompanied by damage to the environment, large numbers of accidents, risks to health and human rights violations. Against this situation, the way that governments deal with ASM is often reactive.
However, for governments there is a range of realistic options for proactive actions that can reduce the risks associated with ASM, focusing on the formalization of ASM.
One of the options to assist the formalization of ASM is to allocate land with mineral potential, the so called “ASM zones” to the ASM sector. Based on experience gained in selected countries, the BGR developed procedures that enable such small-scale mining zones to be designated and managed. The aim is to give state institutions in partner countries appropriate instruments to improve planning and regulation of ASM.


Efficiency of Mineral Processing in Rwanda’s Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sector

Efficiency of Mineral Processing in Rwanda's Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sector. Quantitative Comparison of Traditional Techniques and Basic Mechanized Procedures

The efficiency and economic sustainability of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) practices is often considered as low. This refers to both mining as well as subsequent mineral processing through manual techniques. The present study evaluates traditional processing techniques for tin, tantalum and tungsten ASM operations in Rwanda with regards to ore concentrates and intermediary processing products. In parallel, bulk ore samples from these mines were processed using basic mechanized procedures in order to compare the efficiency of both processing approaches. Using a combination of different mineral price scenarios, investment levels, as well as operational, technical and geochemical sample data from the investigated ASM mines, the economic feasibility of mineral processing is evaluated. On this base, the study then discusses cost effectiveness and economies of scale for mechanized mineral processing in the Rwandan ASM sector.


Titelblatt der Studie "Analytical Tools to Constrain the Origin of Gold from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas"

Analytical Tools to Constrain the Origin of Gold from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas

Together with iron ore and copper, gold forms the economically most important product of the mining sector. The global production from gold mines is worth well above USD 100 billion, with about 10% of gold coming from artisanal and small-scale mining. Hundreds of thousands of small-scale gold miners operate in conflict-affected and high-risk areas such as the eastern DR Congo. These gold supply chains are mostly informal and of limited transparency. Adequate mechanisms to track, trace and ensure the integrity of gold along the supply chain are of increasing importance for due diligence and risk management. Analysis of the composition of gold in order to constrain its origin and formation is done in different areas of application such as archaeometry, forensics, ore deposit geology, and product testing. This study provides an overview of the main methods of gold analysis and correlates these with the structure of upstream gold supply chains, using the DR Congo as a case study. The study aims to elaborate scenarios illustrating how, at a practical level, scientific methods may contribute to questions with regards to the origin of gold in the context of supply chain due diligence.


Titelblatt der Studie "Supply and Demand of Lithium and Gallium"

Supply and Demand of Lithium and Gallium

This study was compiled by the Information Center of the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People’s Republic of China (ICMLR) and the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany (BGR) within the framework of an agreement on a scientific cooperation on geological sciences and techniques signed 1979 by the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People’s Republic of China and the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy of the Federal Republic of Germany.


Titelblatt der Studie "Phosphat - Mineralischer Rohstoff und unverzichtbarer Nährstoff für die Ernährungssicherheit weltweit"

Phosphat - Mineralischer Rohstoff und unverzichtbarer Nährstoff für die Ernährungssicherheit weltweit

Phosphate and its resultant fertilizer are along with nitrogen and potash the most important nutrients for agricultural plant growth. From an international point of view huge differences in the amount of phosphate used and in-situ soil-contents from developing and industrial countries are observable. To provide and sustain a high level of food security, it is a necessity that in the course of upcoming development cooperation a sufficient supply and usage of phosphate will be assured, to be able to guarantee a sustainable increase of the agricultural production and rural development.


Titelblatt der Studie "Assessing and Enhancing the Contribution of Small and Medium-scale Enterprises to Due Diligence for Responsible Mineral Supply Chains"

Assessing and Enhancing the Contribution of Small and Medium-scale Enterprises to Due Diligence for Responsible Mineral Supply Chains (2015)

Reporting and Management requirements according to the internationally acknowledged OECD Due Diligence Guidance apply for the entire supply chain of the so-called conflict minerals. The majority of companies are small and medium enterprises (SME). As a contribution to the implementation of the OECD guidance BGR commissioned a study addressing the question of how SME in industrialized countries and emerging economies cope with international reporting and management requirements related to mineral resources from conflict-affected areas.


Titelblatt der Studie "Evaluation of Mining Revenue Streams and Due Diligence"

Evaluation of Mining Revenue Streams and Due Diligence Implementation Costs along Mineral Supply Chains in Rwanda

The present analysis report evaluates the revenue distribution along upstream mineral supply chains in Rwanda, starting from the level of individual artisanal miners right until the point of exporting the mineral concentrate to international metal smelters. In doing so, the report provides a qualified sample for assessing the contribution of artisanal and small-scale mining with regards to local livelihoods. This analysis is complemented by an estimate of the costs for supply chain due diligence as applicable for “conflict minerals” (tin, tantalum and tungsten ores) that are nowadays required for the international marketing of Rwandan minerals. Thus, the report provides an impression as to the “fairness” of responsible conflict mineral supply chains originating from central-eastern Africa.


Titelblatt der Studie "Mineral Supply Chain Due Diligence Audits and Risk Assessments in the Great Lakes Region"

Mineral Supply Chain Due Diligence Audits and Risk Assessments in the Great Lakes Region

A range of international initiatives attempts to institutionalize supply chain due diligence for conflict minerals (tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold). Third party audits form an important part of the due diligence assurance process. While some initiatives are complementary, others appear to duplicate each other, resulting in ineffective and unsustainable spending of limited funds. The present report analyzes “core system” audit requirements for due diligence and looks at the way these audits are operationalized by different initiatives, with a view to support efforts of horizontal and vertical alignment among these initiatives.


Titelblatt der Studie "Certifying Natural Resources"

Certifying Natural Resources

Certification of natural resources aims at improving sustainability of resource use on a global scale. During the last years many initiatives have been developed also in the mineral sector. Therefore, BGR commissioned a research project for evaluating eight established schemes addressing certification and standard setting in the mineral sector. The central research question was: which initiatives can be regarded as successful and what factors lead to this success.


Titelblatt Rohstoffwirtschaftliche Einordnung

Studie: Vorkommen und Produktion mineralischer Rohstoffe - ein Ländervergleich (PDF, 11 MB) = Reserves, Resources and Production of Mineral Materials - A Country Comparison

Due to an increasing demand, countries rich in mineral resources are gaining greater significance. A global evaluation shows the different importance of mine and refined productions for the world markets, for the supply of Germany and for the producing countries themselves. China and Brazil, for instance, are internationally among the most important producers of mineral commodities – but for the national economies this sector is of less importance. In contrast, mineral commodities dominate the economies of countries like Zambia or the Democratic Republic of Congo.



The Mineral Raw Materials Potential in the Arctic

TheThe global competition for raw materials has increased significantly over the past 15 years, mainly driven by the raw materials demand of the developing economies and newly industrialized countries, notably China. This resulted in risingand strongly volatile raw materials prices and supply risks. In consequence, it triggered exploration activities, also focusing on the Arctic regions. Because of the climate change, the Arctic regions are, in general, of growing geo-political and geo-economical importance. For this reason, the BGR has compiled and analyzed mineral raw materials information and evaluated raw materials potential of the continental Arctic regions in four comprehensive reports.


Investor's Guide Mongolia

Industrial Minerals and Selected Rare Metals in Mongolia. An Investor's Guide (PDF, 26 MB)

Mongolia is rich in mineral deposits. However, most of them have not been evaluated by western standards yet. A modern evaluation is vital when trying to attract international investment in this developing East-Asian country. On behalf of the German Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the BGR re-evaluated a wide array of mineral deposits. As a result, a comprehensive report on the potential of selected industrial minerals and metals in Mongolia was published in 2011 in collaboration with the Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia (MRAM).


Titelblatt Rohstoffwirtschaftliche Bewertung der Länder Afrikas, Asiens, der Gemeinschaft Unabhängiger Staaten (GUS) mit Georgien und Südamerikas im Hinblick auf die Bedeutung für Deutschland. September 2010

Rohstoffwirtschaftliche Bewertung der Länder Afrikas, Asiens, der Gemeinschaft Unabhängiger Staaten (GUS) mit Georgien und Südamerikas im Hinblick auf die Bedeutung für Deutschland = Mining and Mineral Economy Related Evaluation of Countries in Africa, Asia, South Amerika and the former CIS

The German economy is highly dependent on the import of a variety of raw materials, especially metals and high-tech raw materials. In order to secure the raw materials supply and to meet an increasing demand for these commodities, the mineral resource-rich countries, especially the developing and emerging countries, are coming into the focus of the German economy and foreign policy. The study screens and ranks the countries in Africa, South America, Asia and the CIS with regard to the respective country’s importance as a potential raw materials producer and possible supplier for the German industry.

In the context of the German Government’s raw materials strategy, the study is a means to identify countries for a mineral resource partnership. The objectives are supporting especially developing countries in the sustainable use of their raw materials potentials and their integration into the international commodity markets and on the other hand securing the sustainable supply of mineral raw materials for Germany.


Titelblatt Industrial Minerals in Tanzania: An Investor's Guide

Industrial Minerals in Tanzania - An Investor's Guide (Investorenhandbuch Tansania) (PDF, 34 MB)

The mining sector in Tanzania has developed strongly within the past ten years. For the Tanzanian government the development of domestic industrial mineral deposits was important in order to reduce expensive imports of these commodities due to a growing industrialization. In 2008, the BGR compiled a comprehensive report on the industrial mineral potential of this developing East-African country.

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Title page "Government Revenues from the Extractive Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa - a potential for funding the United Nations Millenium Development Goals", 2009

Government Revenues from the Extractive Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa - a potential for funding the United Nations Millenium Development Goals? (PDF, 1,003 KB)

The past boom in mineral commodity prices has raised the awareness that revenues from the mining sector could enable resource-rich countries in Africa to mobilize additional domestic funds towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs – agreed in 2000 by the Millennium Summit of the United Nations are eight international development goals. They include reducing extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, fighting epidemics such as AIDS, and developing a global partnership for development. However, there is still a lack of medium and long-term projections to what extent the extractive sector can make a difference in funding the MDGs, especially for non-major oil producing sub-Saharan countries. This is especially true with respect to the current turmoil in the world economy and mineral commodity markets.
The study by the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) estimates potential revenues from the extractive sector in different scenarios up to 2015 using assumptions such as baseline world market prices, fiscal regimes, and the development of additional production capacity. The four case study countries include Ghana, Namibia, Mozambique and Zambia and cover different mineral commodities such as copper, diamonds, gold, oil and others.


Titelblatt - Kurzstudie - Die Rohstoffindustrie der Russischen Föderation

Kurzstudie "Die Rohstoffindustrie der Russischen Föderation" (PDF, 2 MB)= Summary Report "The Mineral Resources Industry of the Russian Federation

On the occasion of the 2nd German-Russian Mineral Resources Conference in St. Petersburg, March 27 – 28, 2009, the BGR published a report on “The Mineral Resources Industry of the Russian Federation”. It provides information on the Russian mineral potential, the mining industry, the mineral trade and relevant developments in the mining sector. The report updates a mineral resources study on the Russian Federation published by the BGR in 2003: Rohstoffwirtschaftliche Länderstudien, XXX (in German) and predates the report on the mineral potential of Russia, published by the AHK, DERA, and gtai in 2012: Rohstoffgigant Russland – Vorkommen, Projekte, Partnerschaften (in German).



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