Man-made emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) are generally seen as the main cause of the currently observed climate change. Among other processes, CO2 is produced through the incineration of fossil fuels in power plants, combustion engines, and heating installations. It is a byproduct of industrial production and a waste or by-product in industrial processes. The German Federal Government aims for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 80 % or more by 2050. Besides measures to increase energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources, capture and storage of CO2 in deep geological formations is promoted (source: Energiekonzept der Bundesregierung).
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is of particular importance for the steel industry, lime and cement manufactures, refineries, and other energy intensive industries, in order to reduce their unavoidable process-related CO2 emissions, but also for lignite- and coal-fired conventional power plants, due to their large CO2 emissions. Off the coast of Norway, industrial scale CCS is in operation since 1996. Other CO2 storage sites have been established, mainly in North America.
Since 2000, BGR investigates various geotechnical questions related to the storage of CO2 in the subsurface, together with national and international partners from geological surveys, research institutions, and industry. This research forms the basis for objective and neutral consulting of politics and society according to the latest state of the art. BGR is one of the competent authorities in Germany, in charge of tasks defined by the national carbon dioxide storage law (KSpG). In addition to these tasks, BGR contributes to the technical co-operation with developing countries and international standardization of CO2 capture, transport, and storage.
- Storage options
- Geochemical Interactions
- Storage safety and monitoring
- Environmental impact
- Legal Tasks and regulation
- Frequently Asked Questions
- European Commission: CCS Directive
- Overall strategy for the energy transition
- IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme
- Network of Excellence on CO2 Geological Storage